While he was born in Germany, Einstein grew up and did much of his schooling in Italy and Switzerland, moving back to Germany after graduation to work in a patent office, and then later as a professor. In 1933, concerned about the rise of Nazism, he emigrated to Princeton, New Jersey, with his second wife Elsa, where he lived until his death.
One of Einstein's most famous discoveries is the mathematical equation of "e=mc2," also called "The Theory of Relativity," which explained how energy and mass relate to one another. In 1922, Einstein was also awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the "law of photoelectric effect," a way of looking at light and how it works.
Because he was so smart, calling somebody an "Einstein" is now thought of as being the same as being called a genius (as in, "Good idea, Einstein!").
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After he died, scientists removed Einstein's brain in hopes to study it and find out what made him so smart. In 1999, a team in Canada discovered that certain parts of Einstein's brain were missing while others were unusually large, which is what allowed him to think differently than the average human and come up with many of his theories!